subsquare added up to the same number. On July 6, 1895, Le Siècle's rival, La France, refined the puzzle so that it was almost a modern Sudoku. It simplified the 9×9 magic square puzzle so that each row, column, and broken diagonals contained only the numbers 1–9, but did not mark the subsquares. Although they are unmarked, each 3×3 subsquare does indeed comprise the numbers 1–9 and the additional constraint on the broken diagonals leads to only one solution.[8] These weekly puzzles were a feature of French newspapers such as L'Echo de Paris for about a decade, but disappeared about the time of World War I.[9] Modern Sudoku The modern Sudoku was most likely designed anonymously by Howard Garns, a 74-year-old retired architect and freelance puzzle constructor from Connersville, Indiana, and first published in 1979 by Dell Magazines as Number Place (the earliest known examples of modern Sudoku).[1] Garns's name was always present on the list of contributors in issues of Dell Pencil Puzzles and Word Games that included Number Place, and was always absent from issues that did not.[10] He died in 1989 before getting a chance to see his creation as a worldwide phenomenon.[10] Whether or not Garns was familiar with any of the French newspapers listed above is unclear. The puzzle was introduced in Japan by Nikoli in the paper Monthly Nikolist in April 1984[10] as Suji wa dokushin ni kagiru (????????), which also can be translated as "the digits must be single" or "the digits are limited to one occurrence" (In Japanese, dokushin means an "unmarried person"). At a later date, the name was abbreviated to Sudoku (??) by Maki Kaji (?? ?? Kaji Maki), taking only the first kanji of compound words to form a shorter version.[10] "Sudoku" is a registered trademark in Japan[11] and the puzzle is generally referred to as Number Place (???????? Nanbapuresu) or, more informally, a portmanteau of the two words, Num(ber) Pla(ce) (???? Nanpure). In 1986, Nikoli introduced two innovations: the number of givens was restricted to no more than 32, and puzzles became "symmetrical" (meaning the givens were distributed in rotationally symmetric cells). It is now published in mainstream Japanese periodicals, such as the Asahi Shimbun. Spread outside Japan In 1997, Hong Kong judge Wayne Gould saw a partly completed puzzle in a Japanese bookshop. Over six years, he developed a computer program to produce unique puzzles rapidly.[5] Knowing that British newspapers have a long history of publishing crosswords and other puzzles, he promoted Sudoku to The Times in Britain, which launched it on November 12, 2004 (calling it Su Doku). The first letter to The Times regarding Su Doku was published the following day on November 13 from Ian Payn of Brentford, complaining that the puzzle had caused him to miss his stop on the tube.[12] Sudoku puzzles rapidly spread to other newspapers as a regular feature.[5][13] The rapid rise of Sudoku in Britain from relative obscurity to a front-page feature in national newspapers attracted commentary in the media and parody (such as when The Guardian's G2 section advertised itself as the first newspaper supplement with a Sudoku grid on every page).[14] Recognizing the different psychological appeals of easy and difficult puzzles, The Times introduced both, side by side, on June 20, 2005. From July 2005, Channel 4 included a daily Sudoku game in their teletext service. On August 2, the BBC's program guide Radio Times featured a weekly Super Sudoku with a 16×16 grid. In the United States, the first newspaper to publish a Sudoku puzzle by Wayne Gould was The Conway Daily Sun (New Hampshire), in 2004.[15] The world's first live TV Sudoku show, July 1, 2005, Sky One The world's first live TV Sudoku show, Sudoku Live, was a puzzle contest first broadcast on July 1, 2005, on Sky One. It was presented by Carol Vorderman. Nine teams of nine players (with one celebrity in each team) representing geographical regions competed to solve a puzzle. Each player had a hand-held device for entering numbers corresponding to answers for four cells. Phil Kollin of Winchelsea, England, was the series grand prize winner, taking home over £23,000 over a series of games. The audience at home was in a separate interactive competition, which was won by Hannah Withey of Cheshire. Later in 2005, the BBC launched SUDO-Q, a game show that combined Sudoku with general knowledge. However, it used only 4×4 and 6×6 puzzles. Four seasons were produced before the show ended in 2007. In 2006, a Sudoku website published songwriter Peter Levy's Sudoku tribute song,[16] but quickly had to take down the MP3 file due to heavy traffic. British and Australian radio picked up the song, which is to feature in a British-made Sudoku documentary. The Japanese Embassy also nominated the song for an award, with Levy doing talks with Sony in Japan to release the song as a single.[17] Sudoku software is very popular on PCs, websites, and mobile phones. It comes with many distributions of Linux. Software has also been released on video game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, the Game Boy Advance, Xbox Live Arcade, the Nook e-book reader, Kindle Fire tablet, several iPod models, and the iPhone. Many Nokia phones also had Sudoku. In fact, just two weeks after Apple Inc. debuted the online App Store within its iTunes Store on July 11, 2008, nearly 30 different Sudoku games were already in it, created by various software developers, specifically for the iPhone and iPod Touch. One of the most popular video games featuring Sudoku is Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day!. Critically and commercially well-received, it generated particular praise for its Sudoku implementation[18][19][20] and sold more than 8 million copies worldwide.[21] Due to its popularity, Nintendo made a second Brain Age game titled Brain Age2, which has over 100 new Sudoku puzzles and other activities. In June 2008, an Australian drugs-related jury trial costing over A$ 1 million was aborted when it was discovered that five of the twelve jurors had been playing Sudoku instead of listening to evidence.[22] Variants A Sudoku puzzle grid with many colours, with nine rows and nine columns that intersect at square spaces. Some of the spaces are filled with a digit; others are blank spaces to be solved. A nonomino or jigsaw Sudoku, as seen in The Sunday Telegraph The previous puzzle, solved with digits in the blanks spaces. And its solution (red numbers) Variations of grid sizes Although the 9×9 grid with 3×3 regions is by far the most common, many other variations exist. Sample puzzles can be 4×4 grids with 2×2 regions; 5×5 grids with pentomino regions have been published under the name Logi-5; the World Puzzle Championship has featured a 6×6 grid with 2×3 regions and a 7×7 grid with six heptomino regions and a disjoint region. Larger grids are also possible, or different irregular shapes (under various names: Suguru,Tectonic,jigsaw Sudoku...). The Times offers a 12×12-grid "Dodeka Sudoku" with 12 regions of 4×3 squares. Dell Magazines regularly publishes 16×16 "Number Place Challenger" puzzles (using the numbers 1–16 or the letters A-P). Nikoli offers 25×25 "Sudoku the Giant" behemoths. A 100×100-grid puzzle dubbed Sudoku-zilla was published in 2010.[23] Mini Sudoku Under the name "Mini Sudoku", a 6×6 variant with 3×2 regions appears in the American newspaper USA Today and elsewhere. The object is the same as that of standard Sudoku, but the puzzle only uses the numbers 1 through 6. A similar form, for younger solvers of puzzles, called "The Junior Sudoku", has appeared in some newspapers, such as some editions of The Daily Mail. Imposing additional constraints Another common variant is to add limits on the placement of numbers beyond the usual row, column, and box requirements. Often, the limit takes the form of an extra "dimension"; the most common is to require the numbers in the main diagonals of the grid to also be unique. The aforementioned "Number Place Challenger" puzzles are all of this variant, as are the Sudoku X puzzles in The Daily Mail, which use 6×6 grids. Killer Sudoku A Killer Sudoku puzzle And its solution Main article: Killer sudoku The Killer Sudoku variant combines elements of Sudoku and Kakuro. Alphabetical Sudoku A Wordoku puzzle And its solution (red characters) Alphabetical variations have emerged, sometimes called Wordoku; no functional difference exists in the puzzle unless the letters spell something. Some variants, such as in the TV Guide, include a word reading along a main diagonal, row, or column once solved; determining the word in advance can be viewed as a solving aid. A Wordoku might contain words other than the main word. "Quadratum latinum" is a Sudoku variation with Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, ..., IX) proposed by Hebdomada aenigmatum, a monthly magazine of Latin puzzles and crosswords. Like the Wordoku, it presents no functional difference from a normal Sudoku, but adds the visual difficulty of using Roman numerals. Hyper Sudoku A Sudoku puzzle grid with four blue quadrants and nine rows and nine columns that intersect at square spaces. Some of the spaces are filled with one number each; others are blank spaces to be solved. Hypersudoku puzzle The previous puzzle, solved with numbers in the blanks spaces. And its solution Hyper Sudoku uses the classic 9×9 grid with 3×3 regions, but defines four additional interior 3×3 regions in which the numbers 1–9 must appear exactly once. It was invented by Peter Ritmeester and first published by him in Dutch Newspaper NRC Handelsblad in October 2005, and since April 2007 on a daily basis in The International New York Times (International Herald Tribune). The first time it was called Hyper Sudoku was in Will Shortz's Favorite Sudoku Variations (February 2006). It is also known as Windoku because with the grid's f